Congenital anomalies of the heart and vessels 10 Heart malformations are determined by various factors, some with severe movement disorders and oxygen that are incompatible with life, other compatible although initially not generally allow a long-term survival. They occur in animals as lack or excess malformations by malformations of position, or structural alterations septs or the heart valves.
Shows theoretical and practical importance: Acardia total lack of heartlack of closing the pericardial sac, diplocardia double heart multiplicitas cordis multiple cordsdextrocardia heart on the right side of the mediastinumcardiac ectopia presence of heart in the cervical region, pectoral or abdominaletc.
Septs structural defects are common to all species. The total or partial lack thereof, determines the appearance of cords bilocular right or left respectively upper and lower or bilocular cords biventricular, trilocular, biatriale or malformations incompatible with life. Persistence of the oval hole foramen ovale persistence after birth is located in interarterial septum and favors the mixing of the arterial with venous blood eventually causing death by hypoxia.
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In the structure of all valves, especially in the atrioventricular ones, can be found congenital hematic cyst with the diameter to an inch. Pericardium injuries Dystrophic lesions of the pericardium is of less importance in mammals, while in birds they produce irreversible changes sometimes incompatible with life.
Serous atrophy of the pericardium occurs in older animals, in the chronic wasting disease. Adipose tissue in the heart is replaced with a substantial amount of transudate.
The lesion is also known as gelatinous edema or "ex edema vacuo". Macroscopic instead of the fat tissue there is a yellow gelatinous mass-glassy, wet on section. Serous atrophy has practical importance in veterinary checks for meat, it indicates a state of cachexia of the slaughtered animal. Fat infiltration of epicardium is the opposite of serous atrophy.
It is characterized by excessive storage of fat in this stage, and sometimes fat necrosis.
It is found mainly in animals subjected to the process of fattening cattle, pigs, poultry. Melanosis pericardial is a congenital process which occurs in calves, lambs, etc. Pericardial Gout is found in birds, being the expression status of general uric diathesis. Macroscopic, first,by the transparency of the pericardium is noticed in the pericardial cavity the presence of a white deposit like chalk more or less adherent to pericardium.
Epicardium appears sprinkled with white paint. Microscopic reveals acicular crystals arranged in rosettes or amorphous masses uropurinice. In longest developments on the outskirts of uric deposits a lymphohystocytar mesenchymal reaction is observed with soft palate papilloma pathology appearance of giant cells, ultimately resulting in foreign body granulomas granulomatous pericarditis. Installing the soft ciuperci albe papilloma pathology process is possible only in cases where the bird holding a long "uric poisoning", facilitating the emergence and development of granulomatous inflammation.
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Changes in blood and lymphatic circulation Pericardial bleeding, manifested by bruising and suffusions, characterize the poisoning, being the consequence of increased fragility of the capillary basement membrane. Macroscopically, on the surface of the pericardium and especially to the heart epicardium indicate the presence of small reddish points distributed over the deposit of fat and coronary sulcus.
Such lesions are found in diseases like: - bacterial septic emice: anthrax, pasteurellosis, streptococci; - soft palate papilloma pathology classical and African swine fever, Newcastle disease; - toxic: warfarin poisoning or with derivatives.
It is found in all species, but especially horses, pigs and dogs. Effusion is the accumulation of the transudation into the pericardial cavity. Pericardium and epicardium is shiny and smooth.
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It occurs soft palate papilloma pathology all species, with greater practical importance in pigs and birds. Chylopericardium is the accumulation in the pericardial cavity of lymph as a result of breakagethe thoracic duct Macroscopic, the presence of a lipid-rich milky white liquid. All "pericardial collections" described above, have a bad prognosis as may be the cause of sudden death in the so-called "cardiac tamponade".
Inflammation of the pericardium Inflammation of the pericardium are known under the generic name of pericarditis, it affects both blades of the pericardium and epicardium, the inflammatory process affects only the visceral foil. Are commonly found in cattle, poultry, swine, horses and carnivores are produced by toxic agents, infections and trauma.
From an evolutionary standpoint pericarditis may be acute, subacute and chronic. Pathologically are classified pericarditis: necrotic, serous, fibrinous, purulent, traumatic, Ihor, fibrotic and granulomatous.
Necrotic pericarditis is common in lambs visceral necrobacillosis s being linked with lung necrotic foci. Macroscopic in the parietal soft palate papilloma pathology pericardium are present outbreaks of gray-yellow, isolated or confluent, looking brittle, dry, of various sizes, surrounded by line bleeding in acute developments, less white in chronic developments.
Serous Pericarditis is an soft palate papilloma pathology observed in the evolution of acute septicaemic disease avian cholera, hydropericardium ruminants, etc. Parietal and visceral pericardial blades are congested, shiny and wet. Microscopic is observed vacuolation and desquamation of the mesothelial cells, congestion and edema subepicardic, leucodiapedesis.
Serous pericarditis, stopped at this stage, has a benign evolution, being among the few sores that heal by "restitutio ad integrum". In general, it evolves into a serofibrinous inflammation and fibrinous eg avian choleraor the serohemorhagic inflammation eg coal emphysematous. Fibrinous pericarditis occurs in a number of infectious diseases and in the first phase of traumatic pericarditis in cattle.
It is characterized by the appearance and accumulation of fibrinous exudate in the pericardial cavity. Macroscopic, serous pericardium strips are opaque, thickened, rough, due to the deposition of fibrin on their surface.
Pericardial cavity is enlarged and contains appreciable quantities of yellowish fibrin. Fibrinous exudate can unite the two skins of the serous pericardium, resulting in adhesions that can be easily removed. In the fibrin mass can accumulate fibrin exudate serous or purulent or hemorrhagic.
In relation to the predominance of one of these exudates, mixed pericarditis occurs serofibrinous, fibrinohaemorrhagic or fibrinopurulent, which are forms of transition from one lesion to another. These specific pathological aspects are specific of acute days pericarditis. In developments longer resorption occurs partially liquid, organizing soft palate papilloma pathology exudate on account of conjunctive tissue subepicardic, ending with the appearance on the epicardial surface of some gray-white filaments, or villi-like hairs, printing the heart a matter of "villous heart" or "hairy heart.
In longer developments dayswhen there is organization, there is connective tissue proliferation and capillary forming the junction between the parietal and visceral tabs of the serous pericardium. Appearing tissue is scar tissue soft palate papilloma pathology creates synechiae epicardo-pericardial ,pathologic characteristic aspect of the fibrous pericarditis. Purulent or suppurative pericarditis occurs most often as a further unfavorable fibrinous pericarditis, or occurs as a metastatic purulent pericarditis in Gurm and piosepticemia foals, piglets piobacillosis.
Macroscopic the pericardial sac is soft palate papilloma pathology in volume to the palpation ,can be feel sometimes a liquid consistency, fluctuating, sometimes more viscous. On section, the pericardiumblades are much thickened and in the pericardial cavity is found varying amounts of purulent exudate. Microscopic pericardial blades are covered with purulent exudate, mesothelium is flaky or turned in piophage, subserous connective tissue is heavily infiltrated with granulocytes, capillaries are ectasies and with an intense leucodiapedesis process.
Purulent pericarditis is a very serious, often being soft palate papilloma pathology. It is known as soft palate papilloma pathology piopericard or pericardial empyema. Traumatic pericarditis commonly found in cattle, is determined by the penetration of sharp metal body of the network through the diaphragm into the heart. Foreign bodies carry with them a wide range of germs including pyogenic and anaerobic. Following the initial pericardial traum first occure a serofibrinous inflammation then purulent, the last form being able to turn into gangrenous pericarditis.
These forms are dependent by the circulated microbial flora. Macroscopic appearance is dependent on the morphological form in which is surprised the evolution of the traumatic pericarditis.
In general, evolution is chronic, proliferation processes dominated conjunctiva, with papillary adenoma pathology outlines advent of synechiae between the two pericardium skins fibroadhesive pericarditis. Pericarditis gangrenous or Ihor is, in most cases, the consequence of traumatic pericarditis, or occurs as a complication of purulent pericarditis. Macroscopic volume of the pericardial sac is increased occurs by gas pneumopericard and by ihor exudate.
Soft palate papilloma pathology the he pericardial cavity is opened a distinct odor of gangrene is smelled.
Ihor effusion is greenishbrown fluid, heterogeneous, and sometimes being able to detect foreign bodies or fragments thereof. Pericarditis is gangrenous and sapremia death by heart failure that it soft palate papilloma pathology. Pericarditis fibrous hyperplastic or fibroblast is an tratament halitoza chronic productive inflammation, the result, in general, of the exudative pericarditis: serous, fibrinous or purulent.
Fibrous pericarditis occurs in all species pasteurellosis, salmonellosis in pigs and poultry in the hemofilosis of swine mycoplasmosis in colibacillosis and avian mycoplasmosis etc. Macroscopic, it appears pericardial thickening due to a proliferative process with the starting base in the the subseries pericardial connective tissue fibrous pericarditis simple. Thickened soft palate papilloma pathology sometimes has some hairs on the surface pericarditis viloasa. The papilloma virus biopsia negativa blades of the pericardium will stick together by clamps and synechiae, taking the appearance of "fibro-adhesive pericarditis" common in pigs.
Other times, the process is limited to small outbreaks gray-whitish appearance called "maculae albidae". Granulomatous pericarditis occurs in tuberculosis in cattle and carnivores in aspergillosis and gout in birds, have different morphological aspects in relation to aetiology. In tuberculosis, it may be predominantly effusive caseous tuberculosis characterized by large caseum in the serous pericardium, or may develop in the form of lumps of various shapes and sizes, caseous and calcified pearl tuberculosis or fungal serousexpression of productive tuberculosis.
In carnivores can be foun epicardial nodules associated with serous exudation. Granulomatous Aspergillus pericarditis in birds is rare and is manifested by gray-white soft palate papilloma pathology with yellowish center. Pericardium Tumors Pericardial tumors have a low incidence. Primary tumors can result in serous cells mesothelioma and connective tissue fibroids, lipomas.
Secondary tumors occur in avian and bovine enzootic leucosis manifested by hyperplasia of the pericardium limfosarcomabeing a continuation of neoplastic processes in cardiac structure. Tumors can cause compression of great vessels and heart in general. Myocardial injury Myocardial atrophy occurs in animals undergoing chronic soft palate papilloma pathology exhausting infectious, parasitic or neoplastic in states of malnutrition in older animals, the lesion is observed in all species, but especially in cattle.
Macroscopic, the heart is reduced in volume, consistency is maintained or slightly soft palate papilloma pathology, fat tissues from the coronary groove and interventricular septum is gone and the coloring is darker, brownish closed.
Microscopic there is narrowing atrophy of myocardial fibers with lipofuscin deposits at the two poles of the nucleus, where it is more abundant sarcoplasm, lesion known as "brown atrophy of the heart.
Fat myocardosis or myocardum steatosis occurs in animals for fattening and in phosphorus poisoning, copper, arsenic, lupine poisoning etc. Macroscopic the myocardum is yellowish, diffuse or circumscribed and brittle.
Microscopic on the sections on ice and stained with Sudan are seen in sarcoplasm lipid droplets. Myocardial steatosis is considered basic lesion in round heart disease in chickens. Macroscopic infarction of gray, lacking luster, brittle, can affect the body in its entirety, or only area.
Hyaline myocardosis occurs in young animals, calves, lambs, piglets, foals. Macroscopic infarction with areas or striped gray-yellow with increased friability. The diagnosis is established by histological examination.
Non-human data Oral Oral cancer studies showed increased tumour rates in multiple organs, some of which were also tumour sites in the inhalation studies. The majority of tumour types at sites other than the haematopoietic system are of epithelial origin. In rats, benzene treatment was associated to increased tumour incidences in the Zymbal gland NTP, ; Maltoni et al,oral cavity NTP, ; Maltoni et al,forestomach Maltoni soft palate papilloma pathology al,nasal cavity Maltoni et al,and skin NTP, ; Maltoni et al, Dermal No published data are available. Inhalation From several animal studies with inhalation and oral exposure there is evidence that benzene is carcinogenic.
Microscopic myocardial fibers are swollen, homogenized, fragmented and vacuolated in imminent state of necrobiosis hyalinosis intracellular. This lesion is found in youth nutrition myodystrophyalso known as white muscle disease. Also, myocardial intracellular hyalinosis is the base lesion from Herztod, or heart death of swine. Sometimes, soft palate papilloma pathology affecting the medium-caliber vessels, hyaline depositing the initial subendothelial and then, invading the whole vascular wall interstitial hyalinosis lesional aspect found in " mulberrylike soft palate papilloma pathology disease.
Fibrinoid myocardosis structure is observed in small caliber vessels evolved in parallel with hyaline degeneration. The main reason seems to be the hypovitaminosis E.
Pigmentation myocardosis are found either as brown atrophy of the myocardium in all animals cachectic and tracked, whether congenital melanosis stained, seen in lambs and calves as dark brown spots well defined. Microscopic stands melanofore accumulation in myocardial interstitium. Limestone myocardosis is rare.
Occurs in cattle in hypovitaminosis D derivatives mercury poisoning, hypomagnesemia, etc. Diagnosis is established based microscopic aspect,of calcareous incrustations in myocardial fibers and fibers and Purkinje cells. Causes of necrosis may be vascular obstructions, poisoning and infections, self and exogenous intoxications, hypovitaminosis and endocrine disorders catecholaminesinitially producing ischemia and ultimately myocardial necrosis of various sizes.
Circulatory changes Circulatory changes are of great importance in veterinary medicine are represented by hyperemia, hemorrhage and stroke.
Myocardial hyperemia is observed in poisoning and the development of infarction. Especially the superficial myocardial vessels are swollen and obvious form of "red ropes".
Parenchymal hemorrhages soft palate papilloma pathology the myocardium are seen as bruising, or petechiae, located in the heart subepicardic in avian pasteurellosis, in describe mulberrylike heart disease heart as in most septicemic soft palate papilloma pathology. Bleedings through a ruptured myocardial wall can be produced either by sharp foreign bodies soft palate papilloma pathology serious developments of the myocardosis resulting ultimately necrosis processes.
Rupture can span several inches, causing rapid death through internal bleeding haemopericardium. Myocardial infarction wart on foot pregnancy after coronary artery thrombosis, injury found in horse in The incidence of infarcts is related to the duration of febrile accesses. Macroscopic foci are found on the surface of the myocardium, yellow elongated in the direction of the myocardial fibers, loose, with irregular edges, defined in acute forms of hemorrhagic congestivo reaction reddishand n isubacute and chronic developments of a fibrous reaction off-white.
On he section is shaped with large base on the outskirts of targeted organ.
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Microscopic, central is seen an area of coagulation necrosis surrounded by a leukocyte reaction. Gradually, there is soft palate papilloma pathology tissue by fibrosis and scar repair occurs for small infarcts.
Large infarcts, produce multiple myocardiocytolysis ,local expansion and sometimes even perforation of the myocard wallfollowed by haemopericardium acute and sudden death by"cardiac tamponade". Volumetric changes of the myocardium Volumetric changes of the myocardium are represented by dilation and cardiac hypertrophy. Dilated heart is characterized by increasing the volume of the heart as a result of the increase ventricle space.
Macroscopic, the heart is increased in volume, consistency is soft palate papilloma pathology to flatten when you put it on the tablethe color gray. On section, the myocardium is thin, lacking tone, while the cardiac cavities are widen very much. Sometimes, the lower limit of the right ventricle reaches the tip of the heart, resulting in heart with "double apex".