There are many and specific instruments for assessing the quality of life QoL in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Of all these tests, SNOT is widely used. This is the first study that analyzes how the SNOT test can be used to assess the quality of life of the patients with chronic rhinosinusitis in Romania. Materials and method.
Among them, 80 individuals were diagnosed by an ENT physician with chronic rhinosinusitis, with or without nasal polyposis. The translation of the SNOT questionnaire was done by the authors of the study. The sinonasal inverted papilloma from diagnosis to treatment analysis used the Chi-square χ2 test, which was used to assess the significance of demographic variables.
The significant differences were determined using a standard 0. The statistical results were obtained using the SPSS software version The analysis was performed hpv bocca cura the responses of the 80 patients diagnosed with chronic rhinosinusitis the analysis did not include the 10 healthy volunteers.
Results and discussion. The group of patients was homogeneous in terms of gender and age: 42 women The average age of the patients was In terms of environmental origin, the average age of patients was The Romanian version of the SNOT questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing sinonasal diseases in Romanian people. Keywords chronic rhinosinusitis, Sinonasal Outcome Test 22, quality of life Rezumat Obiectivele acestui studiu au fost de a traduce Sinonasal Outcome Test SNOT în limba română într-o formă accesibilă care să hpv virus kondylomata complianţa pacienţilor, de a verifica sensibilitatea testului tradus şi de a stabili utilitatea testului în evaluarea calităţii vieţii pacienţilor cu rinosinuzită sinonasal inverted papilloma from diagnosis to treatment din România, ţinând cont de particularităţile demografice ale populaţiei româneşti.
Romanian Journal of Rhinology
Există numeroase instrumente specifice pentru a evalua calitatea vieţii QoL la pacienţii cu rinosinuzită cronică. Dintre acestea, SNOT este utilizat pe larg.
These often lead to deformities in the jaw area. Cases are specific by framing pathological rarity, etiology, pathogenesis and clinical symptoms. Considering the large entity of cystic formations that can be found in the maxilla region, we selected two patients with cystic formations of the upper jaw, which were part of different pathological etiology categories, with special rarity occurring, evolutionary appearance and difficult to classify in terms of pathognomonic signs.
Acesta este primul studiu care analizează modul în care SNOT poate fi utilizat pentru a evalua calitatea vieţii la pacienţii cu rinosinuzită cronică din România. Materiale şi metodă. Acest studiu are la bază analiza răspunsurilor la testul SNOT a 90 de subiecţi.
Dintre aceştia, 80 au fost diagnosticaţi de către un medic specialist ORL cu rinosinuzită cronică, cu sau fără polipi nazali. Traducerea chestionarului SNOT a fost realizată de autorii studiului. Analiza statistică a utilizat testul Chi-pătrat χ2folosit pentru a evalua semnificaţia statistică a variabilelor demografice. Diferenţele semnificative au fost determinate utilizând un nivel standard alfa de semnificaţie statistică de 0, Rezultatele statistice au fost obţinute utilizând programul SPSS versiunea Analiza a fost realizată pe baza răspunsurilor celor 80 de pacienţi diagnosticaţi cu rinosinuzită cronică analiza nu a inclus cei 10 voluntari sănătoşi.
Rezultate şi discuţii. Vârsta medie a pacienţilor a fost 46,8 ani, cu o deviaţie standard de 17,2 ani pentru întregul grup 46,8±17,2 ; vârsta medie a bărbaţilor incluşi în studiu a fost 43,4±16,8 ani, iar cea a sinonasal inverted papilloma from diagnosis to treatment a fost 49,8±17,2 ani.
În ceea ce priveşte mediul de rezidenţă, vârsta medie a pacienţilor din mediul rural a fost 47,9±19,1 ani, iar vârsta medie a celor din mediul urban a fost 46,2±16,5 ani. Versiunea în limba română a chestionarului SNOT este un instrument valid şi fidel de evaluare a bolii sinonazale la pacienţii din România. Cuvinte cheie rinosinuzită cronică Sinonasal Outcome Test 22 calitatea vieţii Introduction Measuring the quality of life QoL of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis is a useful indicator for the disease, classifying the severity, obtaining the best treatment, and evaluating the outcome.
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There are many sinonasal inverted papilloma from diagnosis to treatment specific instruments for assessing the QoL in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. The first validated test on the quality of life for patients with rhinosinusal diseases was set by Fairley in 1. This test consisted in 12 questions and was based on the responses displayed along a scale of 0 to 3. This questionnaire is not widely used. The first person who decided to observe the impact of the rhinosinusal pathology on the quality of life by means of a complex questionnaire was Piccirillo in 2.
His questionnaire, called SNOT Sinonasal Outcome Test 20consists in 20 questions, which can be divided into five smaller groups nasal symptoms, sinusal symptoms, sleep-related symptoms, social and emotional impact.
The assessment of these symptoms was based on a scale ranging from 0 to 5, wherein 0 meant no problem and 5 meant a severe problem. InHopkins et al.
The SNOT questionnaire was translated in several countries, and its efficiency was proved both for patients experiencing rhinosinusal problems, and for those suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis. In Brazil, two studies conducted by different teams aimed at having the SNOT translated into the Portuguese dialect spoken in Brazil 5,6.
Another study also conducted in Brazil 7 aimed at observing the way in which patients suffering from chronic pastile pt paraziti who had not been subjected to reparatory surgery report a lower quality of life, based on the same SNOT questionnaire. The conclusion of the test was that the Danish version of the questionnaire was recommended for the Danish researchers and sinonasal inverted papilloma from diagnosis to treatment as an effective way of assessing the rhinosinusal inflammatory processes — rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis.
In Italy 9the SNOT is recommended in order to assess the quality of life as described by the patients suffering from chronic sinonasal inverted papilloma from diagnosis to treatment. In Iran, the possibility of having the test translated and used in patients experiencing rhinosinusal pathology was considered as well The study included only adults, older than 18 years old. The exclusion criteria were: less than 18 years of age; cystic fibrosis; marked immunodeficiency either congenital, or acquired ; fungus-ball or invasive fungal sinusitis; systemic vasculitis; neoplasia.
All patients filled in the SNOT questionnaire. The translation of the SNOT questionnaire was done by the authors of the study, who tried to use simple, easy-to-understand words. After having translated the test, it was forwarded to five family care doctors for assessment and further suggestions.
The SNOT consists a list of 22 symptoms. Other symptoms refer to auricular damage the senzation of stuffy ear, ear painand general illness sickness, cephalea. The patient is required to answer specific questions, wherein 0 means that the respective symptom is not present, and 5 means that the respective symptom causes serious problems.
The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version Results and discussion The structure of the group of patients was the following: 42 women The sinonasal inverted papilloma from diagnosis to treatment age of patients was In terms of environmental origin, the average age of patients was The group was homogeneous in terms of age, both regarding the average and the standard deviation.
The average score on the SNOT of the entire group of patients included in the study 80 patients was Within our study, the smallest number of points was 21, and the largest was The number of points scored by healthy patients ranged between 0 and Table 1. Tabel 2.
Further analysis revealed the fact that the Odds Ratio was 1. The statistical analysis went on with the Chi-Square test Table 3. Tabel 3.
Table 4. The average of the SNOT for the entire set of patients was 69 points; the smallest number of points was 21, whereas the largest was It is our opinion that these results are accurate, as they suggest a rhinosinusal inflammatory pathology; the existing studies emphasize the fact that healthy people, who do not suffer from chronic rhinosinusitis, score very low: between 0 and 50, with an average of 9.
In the case of our study, the results of the healthy voluntaries ranged between 0 and 37, with an average of The analysis of the score of each symptom included in the SNOT indicates the fact that the most significant values were scored in the case of the symptoms which are characteristic to chronic rhinosinusitis: stuffy nose average 4.
Among the symptoms which are specific to chronic rhinosinusitis according to EPOSonly face soreness or pressure scored lower, with an average of 2. All of these values clearly prove that the SNOT is effective in assessing the symptoms related to chronic rhinosinusitis. The statistical analysis presented proves that the SNOT can be used for the anamnestic and diagnostic investigation of the patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis, with or without nasal polyposis.
Therefore, we believe the large-scale implementation of the SNOT is justified as a method for diagnosing patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis, with or without nasal polyposis. The study concept was developed by Alina Căpitănescu. The statistical analysis and data interpretation were performed by Iulia Bianca Mitroi. The critical revision of the manuscript was done by Mihaela Roxana Mitroi.
Financial disclosure: Nothing to report. Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interests. Reliability and validity of a nasal symptom questionnaire for use as an outcome measure in clinical research and audit of functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
Clin Otolaryngol. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. The national comparative audit of surgery for nasal polyposis and chronic rhinosinusitis. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. Psychometric validity of item sinonasal outcome test. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol.
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